Arabic Glyphs Proportions and Guidlines

The following article is a brief description of systems and guidelines used in Arabic calligraphy and Arabic type design field to achieve proportional and harmonious Arabic letters. This article is intended for typography students and beginners in Arabic type design.

intro-pic.jpg

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1. Arabic Calligraphy:

Traditional Arabic Calligraphy schools base their teachings on three writing systems created by the Arabic calligrapher “Ibn Muqlah” in the ninth century. The three systems are: 1.Nizam Al-Dairah, 2.Nizam Al-Nuqat and 3.Nizam Al-Tashabuh.

Nizam Al-Dairah:
nizam-el-da2ira.jpg

Nizam Al-Nuqat:
nizam-el-nou2at.jpg

In brief, Nizam Al Dairah (system of the circle) bases all the letterforms on a circle. The diameter of the circle is determent from the height of the letter “Alef”. Nizam Al-Nuqat (system of the dots) bases the proportions of the letters on dot counts. The rhombic dot is determent from the thickness of the calligraphic pen used, whereas the dot count of each letter is dependent on the Arabic calligraphic style chosen. Refer to the picture below.

Nizam Al-Nuqat with respect to the “alif” of each Calligraphic Style:
alef-dots.jpg

The Thuluth style has the longest “alef” while the Ruqâa and Persian styles have the shortest “alef”. Both Nizam Al-Dairah and Nizam Al-Nuqat initiate from the height of the “alef” and the Arabic calligraphic style, then all the other letters and drawn accordingly.

Nizam Al-Nuqat in the Thuluth Style:
nizam-el-nou2at-02.jpg

The third system, Nizam Al-Tashabuh (system of similarity), is based on similar pen strokes used in several letters. For example, the “seen.final” and “sad.final” share the same ending stroke, the “waw.isol” and “qaf.isol” share the same starting loop or eye, the “ain.isol” and “hah.isol” share the same ending stroke and so forth for all the letters

Nizam Al-Tashabuh:
nizam-el-tashabouh.jpg

Usually Nizam Al-Nuqat is the most referred to writing system. Arabic Calligraphy students write several calligraphic exercises based on the Nizam Al-Nuqat for the most common Arabic calligraphic styles (1.Kufi, 2.Naskh, 3.Thuluth, 4.Diwani, 5.Persan, 6.Riqâa, 7.Maghrébi) before they become good Arabic calligraphers. Below is an example of an exercise.

exercise.jpg

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2. Arabic Type Design:

When it comes to type designing the three calligraphic writing systems are transformed into guidelines and components. Upon starting an Arabic typeface design, the first step to do is to choose a calligraphic style to refer to while drawing the letters. The choice of calligraphic style is directly depended on the purpose and use of the typeface. For example, most text Arabic typeface are based on the “Naskh” style, while most display Arabic typefaces are based on “Kufi” or “Diwani”. Whether the drawn typeface is modern or traditional; it must always refer to a certain calligraphic style if it needs to be professionally done. After choosing the calligraphic style, the guidelines fo the typefaces need to be determent. The guidelines are: 1.baseline stroke thickness (which is also linked to the overall stroke thickness), 2. the loop height/s, 3. the tooth height/s, 4. the ascender height/s and the descender height/s. There is no x-height since there is no “x” in the Arabic alphabet. Instead of one x-height in Latin typefaces, there is loop and tooth height/s in Arabic typefaces. The Arabic letters do not all have the same heights as Latin letters. Below is two examples of new Arabic typefaces that are part of the “Typographic Matchmaking 01“ project.

Sada Guidlines:
sada-type-proportions.jpg

TheMixArab Guidlines:
themixarab-type-proportions.jpg

The first is SADA and the second is TheMixArab. Sada is based on the Naskh style while TheMixArab is based on the Kufi Style. Notice the guidelines in each typeface. Since Sada is based on the Naskh style, the letters are more flowing and they do not all have the same heights. In Sada there is two tooth heights, two loop heights, one ascender height and two descender heights. On the contrary, TheMixArab has one guideline used for loop height and tooth height, one descender and one ascender. Since the Kufi style is more geometric, TheMixArab does not need as much guidelines as Sada. The Naskh based typeface is more calligraphic then a Kufi based typeface and hence needs more guidelines to make all the letterforms harmonious. So depending on the Arabic typeface designed and the purpose of its design, the guidelines will be decided on by the type designer. There isn’t one rule that fits all Arabic typefaces as in the Latin typefaces. The guidelines in Arabic type designing replace both “Nizam Al Dairah” and “Nizam Al-Nuqat” in calligraphy. The third writing system “Nizam Al-Tashabuh” is replaced by components. Components in type designing are pen strokes that are used to create several letters. Examples of letters that use components are the same as the ones listed in “Nizam Al-Tashabuh” previously. In the Arabic alphabet there is 17 basic pen strokes that build up the whole alphabet. Take a look of the Fontlab file bellow.

components.jpg

All the pink colored glyphs are drawn and become components for all the other glyphs that are white. All the white glyphs are composed from components.

The balance and harmony of the whole typeface start from the mentioned main three points.
1. Choice of an Arabic calligraphic style, 2. Creating the guidlines and 3. drawing the basic components for the whole typeface.

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3. Testing words and sentences to achieve proportionality:
Testing words and sentences are drawn at the beginning of an Arabic type design project. The testing words are used to achieve proportionally in the glyphs drawn before embarking on all the glyphs of the typeface. It is wise to spend some time at the launch of an Arabic type design project on test words then to move fast on drawing the entire letters and then notice that the proportionality between them is not working. Testing words are like the corner stone for a typeface. Once it is well drawn, the creation of the remaining glyphs moves smoothly. Below is two examples of Arabic testing sentences written with Sada and then with TheMixArab.

arabic-pangrams-0001.jpg

arabic-pangrams-0002.jpg

The first test sentence I made with my typography students at AUB. It is “ houm wa tarabishahunna raqasou al-dabka”. The second is taken from Huda AbiFarès book “Arabic Typography”. It is “hiya qatou’ al mash’aladan”. Unlike Latin, there are no standard testing words or pangrams for the Arabic script. A pangram is a testing sentence that contains all the letters of the alphabet. For the Latin we have “handgloves” & “hambourgefontsiv” as testing words. “The quick brown fox jumps over a lazy dog” is the most famous English pangram. Since Latin is detached, it is easy to create pangrams for it, but when it comes to the Arabic script, it is more difficult and actually impossible to have all the Arabic letters and there different shapes according to their position in the words in one sentence. That is why there is no standard testing words or pangrams for Arabic. Each Arabic type designers creates his/her own words and sentences according to the type project. What is important in all the testing words is that they should have letters with ascenders (“alef”, “kaf”,”tah”), descenders (“reh” “noon”, “hah”, “ain”), eyes (“waw”), loops (“feh”) and teeth (“seen”, “teh”) for the Arabic script; ascender (“h”,”d”), descender (“p”,”g”), and several main letters for the x-heigth (“n”, “a”, “e”, “o” and others) for the Latin script.

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Pascal Zoghbi 17 August, 2007.

36 Comments

  1. can’t thank you enough for this! i feel that i should be paying for this info! :)

    would you know who established Nizam Al-Nuqat? is there an equivalent in designing latin fonts? i’ve always thought that letters drawn with these rhombic dots surrounding them is in itself a piece of art. i’d like to use them for posters and print them singularly on large scale, or paint them on a large wall and just stare at the strokes details! typo freak eh?!

    could you also please elaborate on the 17 basic pen strokes? thats the same as the similar ending strokes, right? but it doesnt only have to do with the ending. for example the ‘s’ and ‘sh’ are exact duplicates. so does that count within the 17 basic pen strokes?

    always thankful :)

    Hilda

  2. Hey Hilda

    Happy to know that my posts are being informative and helpful for you and other Arabic typographers and students.

    The first section of the calligraphic writing systems can be found in all Arabic calligraphy books. What is added from my own experience is the second section of type designing.

    “Ibn Muqlah” created all three calligraphic writing systems as mentioned in the first section.

    As for the 17 basic strokes, well this is based on the old Arabic that was only 17 letters instead of 29. But this number is not true for all the Arabic typefaces; it depends on the design of the font and the feel of it. But this is in general. Refer to the components section to get more of this idea.

  3. Hello Pascal,

    very nice to find something about Arabic calligraphy in the internet. I’ve searched the whole internet for books or exercise-books about the “Nizam Al-Nuqat” but I haven’t found. Can you recommand one?

    It’s a big problem for me to learn about Arabic calligraphy because I do live in Germany. Nobody here can help me in that issue.

    best regards,
    Maurice

  4. bonjour Pascal,
    c’est bien pour la simplification mais, mais, reste à ce que l’ensemble reste beaucoup plus homogène c’est à dire que chacune des lettres doit nous rappeler l’affinité de l’autre,
    donc l’idée de base doit comporté les caractéristiques d’un genre bien distinct.
    industrialisé les lettres, profitant de la simplification bien, de la normalisation, de la lisibilité pour celà elle doit subir les test des anamorphoses.
    courage !
    n.abh.

  5. SALAM
    JE TROUVE VOTRE SITE TRES FRUCTUEUX A CHAQUE FANS ARTISTIQUE JE VOUDRAIS AVOIR SI POSSIBLE QUELQUE MODELE DE DIWANI ALPHABET . SHOUKRAN

  6. Dear Brother

    I had been surfing the net more than a month to find out
    a particular Arabic Font which is used in Bangladesh
    for printing The Holy Quran. More than 150 Million people
    are used to it from very ancient age, still it is very much friendly
    to all as the script is very easy to read. this printings are
    either from wooden or lead blocks.

    How I can send one scanned copy of such printing for my further help

    Best regards

    Ahmed

  7. Dear All,
    I love calligraphy, I need Arabic Calligraphy books, catalog. Please send me.Thanks & regards
    Mohammad Abdur Rahim
    498/2, Baganbari, Sonalibagh, Moghbazar
    Dhaka-1217
    BANGLADESH
    e-mail: calligraphy.bd@gmail.com

  8. Really very nice article about classic calligraphy, pls you can visit my site about my new style in calligraphy. that called Anatomic calligraphy. Anatomic calligraphy is a style in which the portrait of a person is drawn using the person’s name in Arabic or the words describing any other specialties of the person.

    Site address : http://www.worldofcalligraphy.com

    please send me replay to my mail. kchemnad@gmail.com

  9. Hello,

    gr8 info, just one question : u were a student in NDU ?

    regards,
    Armig

  10. and another question how can i get jut the vocalizattion marks of arabic in which typeface,
    thanks

  11. if you want to know more about me
    you can visit my profile page in my website.

    actually i am an instructor at NDU and LAU now.
    though i got my BA from NDU
    and my MD from KABK holland

  12. Hi,

    Thats great that I’v seen first time that how to create and draw the Great Caligraphy of Arabic letters, I belive it would be helpfull for new students of caligraphy all over the world.

    Simply I say, it is great…

    M.A. Hussain
    Karachi Pakistan

  13. Salam2u

    Thank you for sharing this wonderful info in such a crisp style. It was an enlightening read.

    God bless you.

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  15. Really Nice article you wrote ,Traditional Arabic Calligraphy is enriched with galmorous styles , Arabic Calligraphy was 60 Styles and Shapes and Ibn Mokla Has reduced them to The kinds we know right now …… I hope all of the words know secrets of this kind of Art……

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    Arabic Calligrapher From Egypt

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  20. i look on internet for 2 days until i find your blog nobody write about arabic calligraphy thanks you for doing that guys

  21. Thanks for posting this information!!! I’m a student of Arabic and have found Arabic calligraphy to be really fun and interesting but it’s been so difficult to find information online – until I found this site! :) Cheers from Seoul!

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